Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Kinanthropology. Sport and Quality of Life. 7. – 9. 11. 2019Kapitola
On selected problems of low representation of women in coachingRok vydání: 2020
Coaches play a crucial role in the development of sport at all levels. However, there is often talk of a lack of coaches. This problem is compounded by the fact that female coaches make up only a much smaller part of the coaching staff. Significant deficits of woman are particular-ly noticeable in senior coaching positions (e.g., among head or national coaches). The issue of female representation in coaching has received considerable attention for forty years, es-pecially within the broader topic of women and sport. At the same time, the literature reflects an interesting paradox. Political and sporting bodies at the international and national level address the shortage of female coaches, and many projects promoting women in coaching have emerged. Research but shows that female representation in coaching is practically not improving. Many organizational and interpersonal problems and myths about the possibilities of women trainers remain. Also, in the Czech Republic, in the last two decades, political and research activities pay considerable attention to the topic of women in coaching. Our study builds on Czech empirical findings in the field of women in sport from the first decade of the 21st century. Apartial goal of our more extensive research was to find out the reasons for the low representation of women among sports coaches. We addressed women (questionnaire survey, n=103, average age 24.3 years), who at the performance or top-level are engaged in various sports and who are – at the same time – feel “at the end” of their active sports track, and realistically think about the professional future after finishing their sports career. We pro-cessed the results using statistical analysis and open coding. The most common reasons that negatively affect the continuation of the addressed female athletes as coaches, respondents report low financial remuneration of coaching work and loss of leisure time. Other reasons why women do not consider coaching include the lack of their professional ambitions and re-spect from sports associations and sports clubs. Research carried out shows that about half of the addressed female athletes are interested in staying in the sport as a coach, but they are aware of many obstacles in this area at the same time.
coaching; women in coaching; lack of female coaches
Bruening, J. E., Dixon, M. A., Burton, L., & Madsen, R. (2012). Women in coaching: The work-life interface. In P. Potrac, W. Gilbert, & J. Denison (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Sports Coaching (pp. 411–423). London, UK: Taylor and Francis.
Burton, L. J. (2015). Underrepresentation of women in sport leadership: a review of research. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.02.004
Cachay, K., & Benning, A. (2002). Frauen als Trainerinnen. In BISp-Jahrbuch 2001 (s. 227–231). Bonn: Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft.
Canadian Journal for Women in Coaching. (2000–2019). Ottawa: Coaching Association of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.coach.ca/canadian-journal-for-women-in-coaching-p154726
Carson, F., McCormack, C., & Walsh, J. (2018). Women in Sport Coaching: Challenges, Stress and Wellbeing. E-Jurnal Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation, 7(2), 63–67.
Coakley, J. (2017). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. 12th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Coche, R., & Le Blond, O. (2018). Is the world ready for a woman coaching a top male athlete? Analysis of online reactions to Mauresmo’s appointment as Murray’s coach. Women’s Studies International Forum, 69, 9–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2018.04.003
Česká unie sportu. (2018). Alarmující situace ve sportovních klubech a tělovýchovných jednotách: nemají prostředky na trenéry a topí se v byrokracii [The alarming situation in sports clubs: they have no money for coaches and are drowning in bureaucracy]. Retrieved from https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:86MBwfdvd2gJ:https://www.cuscz.cz/media/tiskove-zpravy/alarmujici-situace-ve-sportovnich-klubech-a-telovychovnych-jednotach.html+&cd=12&hl=cs&ct=-clnk&gl=cz.
Do Female Athletes Prefer Male Coaches? (2017). Soccer Journal, 62(1), 24–26. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,cookie,uid&db=s3h&AN=12549 3220&lang=cs&site=eds-live&scope=site
European Institute for Gender Equality. (2016). Gender in Sport. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Fasting, K., & Knorre, N. (2005). Woman in Sport in the Czech Republic. The Experiences of Female Athletes. Oslo & Praha: Norwegian School of Sport Sciences and Czech Olympic Committee.
Gieß-Stüber, P. (2009). Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung im Sport: Forschungsfelder, Entwicklungen und Perspektiven. Freiburger GeschlechterStudien, 2009(23), 33–44.
Hargreaves, J., & Anderson, E. (Eds.). (2014). Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203121375
Keményová, Z. (2018). Nerozhodují a mají nižší platy. Ženy na univerzitách. [They do not decide and have lower salaries. Women at universities]. Universitas, 18 September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.universitas.cz/tema/1662-anketa-jak-zvysit-pocet-zen-ve-vedeni-skol
Knoppers, A. (1987). Gender and the Coaching Profession. Quest, 39(1), 9–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1987.10483853
Knorre, N, Kolář, F., & Dovalil, J. (2004). Ženy a sport v olympijském hnutí. [Women and sport in the Olympic movement]. Retrieved from https://www.olympic.cz/docs/osmus/zeny_a_sport_v_olympijskem_hnuti.pdf
LaVoi, N. M. (Ed.). (2016). Women in Sports Coaching. New York, NY: Routlege. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315734651
Megheirkouni, M., & Muhammad, A. R. (2017). Women’s leadership development in sport settings. European Journal of Training and Development, 41(5), 467–484. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-12-2016-0085
Macura, O. (2018). Ženy na Olympu: Věra Čáslavská. [Women at Olympia: Vera Caslavska]. Praha: Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy. Retrieved from http://www.msmt.cz/ministerstvo/novinar/tiskove-zpravy
Norman, L. (2012). Developing female coaches: strategies from women themselves. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport & Physical Education, 3(3), 227–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/18377122.2012.721725
Picariello, M., & Waller, S. N. (2016). The Importance of Role Modeling in Mentoring Women: Lessons from Pat Summitt Legacy. Physical Culture & Sport. Studies & Research, 71(1), 5–13. https://doi.org/10.1515/pcssr-2016-0017
Reade, I., Rodgers, W., & Norman, L. (2009). The Under-Representation of Women in Coaching: A Comparison of Male and Female Canadian Coaches at Low and High Levels of Coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4(4), 505–520. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795409790291439
Sekot, A. (2006). Sociology of sport: topical issues. Brno: Masarykova univerzita & Paido.
Stark, R. (2017). Where Are the Women? An NCAA Champion feature. Retrieved from https://www. ncaa.org/static/champion/where-are-the-women
Telles-Langdon, D. M. (2018). A Female Perspective on Canada’s National Coaching Institute Mentorship Experience. International Journal of Sport & Society: Annual Review, 9(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.18848/2152-7857/CGP/v09i01/1-10
The Brighton Declaration on Women and Sport: Women Sport and the Challenge of Change. (1994). Brighton: British Sports Council. Retrieved from http://www.icsspe.org/sites/default/files/ Brighton%20Declaration.pdf
Theberge, N. (2014). The construction of gender in sport: Women, coaching, and the naturalization of the difference. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/socpro/article-abstract/40/3/301/1621684/The-Construction-of-Gender-in-Sport-Women-Coaching. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.1993.40.3.03x0079a
Vinson, D., Christian, P., Jones, V., Williams, C., & Peters, D. M. (2016). Exploring How Well UK Coach Education Meets the Needs of Women Sports Coaches. International Sport Coaching Journal, 3(3), 287–302. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0004
Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal. (1992–2019). University of North Carolina at Greensboro: Human Kinetics.
Ženy sokolky. [Women in the Sokol movement]. (2019). Vzdělavatelské listy, 2 (červen–červenec).