Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Kinanthropology. Sport and Quality of Life. 7. – 9. 11. 2019



Purpose: Breast cancer patients are at increased risk of developing comorbidities such as lymphedema, sarcopenia, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease after breast cancer treatment. These complications contribute to a decrease in quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength. Regular and long-term physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy that can improve physical, psychological and social outcomes. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effect of various modes of an exercise intervention on physical performance, body composition, depression and autonomic nervous system in breast cancer survivors.<br />Methods: 16 women after surgery with hormonal treatment enter the research. Thirteen of them completed the controlled, quasi-experimental study (54 ± 9 yrs, 164cm ± 6cm, 72 ± 12kg) and were divided into 3 groups according to their place of living: trained under supervision (n=5) (SUPERV), trained at home without supervision by videos (n=7) (HOME) and with no prescribed physical activity (n=4) (CON). Exercise intervention lasted 3 months and comprised of 60 min training units 3 × week (aerobic with resistant exercise in a 2 : 1 mode combined with regular weekly yoga and breathing exercises). The exercise intensity was set individually at 65–75% of HRR based on spiroergometry and was continuously controlled by heart rate monitors. The same principles applied to the HOME group, which, in addition to heart rate monitors, recorded frequency, length, HRmax, HRavg, and Borg scale of intensity perception. VO2max, BMI, fat mass, depression level (Beck’s depression inventory) and the power of the autonomic nervous system (total power and sympatho-vagal balance) were analyzed. For data evaluation we used descriptive statistics and Cohens d effect size. Results: 3 women dropped out of research because of medical reason. In all groups VO2max values increased. The largest increase in VO2max values was in SUPERV group by 36%, in HOME group by 20% and in CON group by 2%. Body weight decreased for groups SUPERV (˗1.2 kg) and CON (-0.1kg), for HOME group there was an increase (+0.2 kg). Body mass index decreased for SUPERV group (-0.4), for HOME and CON it increased (both +0.1). Total power decreased in SUPERV (-0.6) and HOME group (-0.2), in CON has not changed. The same results were achieved by the sympatho-vagal balance, only the CON group increased. Values from Beck’s depression inventory decreased for all groups, most for CON group. Conclusion: A 3-months of supervised and controlled exercise had a significant effect on physical fitness and body composition in comparison with non-supervised home-based physical intervention. Our results indicate that it is strongly advisable to apply a supervised exercise program to induce positive physiological changes in breast cancer survivors as part of aftercare.

Klíčová slova

cancer; physical activity; anthropometric changes; Beck’s depression inventory; spectral analysis of heart rate variability


Beck, A. T. (1961). An Inventory for Measuring Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(6), 561.

Caro-Morán, E., Fernández-Lao, C., Galiano-Castillo, N., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Arroyo-Morales, M., & Díaz-Rodríguez, L. (2016). Heart Rate Variability in Breast Cancer Survivors After the First Year of Treatments: A Case-Controlled Study. Biological Research for Nursing, 18(1), 43–49.

Casla, S., López-Tarruella, S., Jerez, Y., Marquez-Rodas, I., Galvão, D. A., Newton, R. U., … Martín, M. (2015). Supervised physical exercise improves VO2max, quality of life, and health in early stage breast cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 153(2), 371–382.

de Boer, M. C., Wörner, E. A., Verlaan, D., & van Leeuwen, P. A. M. (2017). The Mechanisms and Effects of Physical Activity on Breast Cancer. Clinical Breast Cancer, 17(4), 272–278.

de Jong, N., Courtens, A. M., Abu-Saad, H. H., & Schouten, H. C. (2002). Fatigue in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a review of the literature. Cancer Nursing, 25(4), 283–297; quiz 298–299.

DeSantis, C. E., Lin, C. C., Mariotto, A. B., Siegel, R. L., Stein, K. D., Kramer, J. L., … Jemal, A. (2014). Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2014: Cancer Treatment and Survivorship Statistics, 2014. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 64(4), 252–271.

Dias Reis, A., Silva Garcia, J. B., Rodrigues Diniz, R., Silva-Filho, A. C., Dias, C. J., Leite, R. D.,& Mostarda, C. (2017). Effect of exercise training and detraining in autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(7–8), 1062–1068.

Dieli-Conwright, C. M., Courneya, K. S., Demark-Wahnefried, W., Sami, N., Lee, K., Sweeney, F. C., … Mortimer, J. E. (2018). Aerobic and resistance exercise improves physical fitness, bone health, and quality of life in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Research, 20(1).

Fernández, M. F., Reina-Pérez, I., Astorga, J. M., Rodríguez-Carrillo, A., Plaza-Díaz, J., & Fontana, L. (2018). Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with the Microbiota. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8).

Ferrer, R. A., Huedo-Medina, T. B., Johnson, B. T., Ryan, S., & Pescatello, L. S. (2011). Exercise interventions for cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of quality of life outcomes. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 41(1), 32–47.

Goss, P. E., Ingle, J. N., Pater, J. L., Martino, S., Robert, N. J., Muss, H. B., … Tu, D. (2008). Late extended adjuvant treatment with letrozole improves outcome in women with early-stage breast cancer who complete 5 years of tamoxifen. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 26(12), 1948–1955.

Grabenbauer, A., Grabenbauer, A. J., Lengenfelder, R., Grabenbauer, G. G., & Distel, L. V. (2016).Feasibility of a 12-month-exercise intervention during and after radiation and chemotherapy  in cancer patients: impact on quality of life, peak oxygen consumption, and body composition. Radiation Oncology (London, England), 11.

Chen, Z. (2005). Fracture Risk Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(5), 552.

Knobf, M. T. (2011). Clinical Update: Psychosocial Responses in Breast Cancer Survivors. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 27(3), e1–e14.

Kramer, J. A., Curran, D., Piccart, M., de Haes, J. C., Bruning, P., Klijn, J., … Paridaens, R. (2000). Identification and interpretation of clinical and quality of life prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment in first-line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990), 36(12), 1498–1506.

Li, K., Rüdiger, H., & Ziemssen, T. (2019). Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability: Time Window Matters. Frontiers in Neurology, 10.

Macêdo, G. D. de, Lucena, N. M. G. de, Soares, L. M. de M. M., Rocha, P. O. A. da, Gutièrrez, C. V., & López, M. C. B. (2010). Influência Do Estilo De Vida Na Qualidade De Vida De Mulheres Com Câncer De Mama. Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Saúde, 14(4), 13–18.

MAMO.CZ: Rakovina prsu. (2018). Získáno 29. červenec 2019, php?pg=pro-verejnost--rakovina-prsu

Meneses-Echávez, J. F., González-Jiménez, E., & Ramírez-Vélez, R. (2015). Effects of supervised exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer, 15.

Mishra, S. I., Scherer, R. W., Geigle, P. M., Berlanstein, D. R., Topaloglu, O., Gotay, C. C., & Snyder, C. (2012). Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8), CD007566.

Mužík, J., Šnajdrová, L., & Gregor, J. (2018). MAMO.CZ: Epidemiologie karcinomu prsu v ČR. Získáno 29. červenec 2019, z

Ording, A. G., Garne, J. P., Nyström, P. M. W., Frøslev, T., Sørensen, H. T., & Lash, T. L. (2013). Comorbid diseases interact with breast cancer to affect mortality in the first year after diagnosis—a Danish nationwide matched cohort study. PloS One, 8(10), e76013.

Peterson, L. L., & Ligibel, J. A. (2018). Physical Activity and Breast Cancer: an Opportunity to Improve Outcomes. Current Oncology Reports, 20(7), 50.

Radbruch, L., Strasser, F., Elsner, F., Gonçalves, J. F., Løge, J., Kaasa, S., … Research Steering Committee of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC). (2008). Fatigue in palliative care patients -- an EAPC approach. Palliative Medicine, 22(1), 13–32.

Rodrigues, F., Feriani, D. J., Barboza, C. A., Abssamra, M. E. V., Rocha, L. Y., Carrozi, N. M., … Rodrigues, B. (2014). Cardioprotection afforded by exercise training prior to myocardial infarction is associated with autonomic function improvement. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 14, 84.

Schmitz, K., Courneya, K., Matthews, C., Demark-Wahnefried, W., Galvão, D., Pinto, B., … Schwartz, A. (2010). American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(7), 1409–1426.

Stejskal, P., Šlachta, R., Elfmark, M., Salinger, J., & Gaul-Aláčová, P. (2002). Spectral Analysis Of Heart Rate Variability: New Evaluation Method.

Vigo, C., Gatzemeier, W., Sala, R., Malacarne, M., Santoro, A., Pagani, M., & Lucini, D. (2015). Evidence of altered autonomic cardiac regulation in breast cancer survivors. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 9(4), 699–706.

WHO | Cancer country profiles 2014. (2014). Získáno 31. červenec 2019, z WHO website: https://