Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Kinanthropology. Sport and Quality of Life. 7. – 9. 11. 2019



Non-profit organisations play a critical role in many societies because they fulfill the needs in areas that are not covered by the public or private sector. The primary purpose of all non-profit organisations is not generating income and, in most cases, the income from their own activities is not enough to survive. Therefore, they are forced to look for additional ways of funding and are dependent on them. These types of financial resources can be divided into two main groups – internal and external resources. Income from own activities and member-ship fees can be an example of internal resources. Subsidies from the state or municipalities, sponsorship money, and donations are part of organisations’ external resources. The main aim of this paper is to reveal the influence of different types of financial resources of non-profit sport organisations on their strategy. The article applies general findings for non-profit organ-isations from the paper of Stone, Bigelov, and Crittenden (1999) on “Research on strategic management in non-profit organisations” on the organisations from the sport area. Funding and financial resources may influence the components of a strategic process: formulation, content, and implementation. This paper focuses on the extent in which funding and financial resources affect the organisation’s strategic management and describes the influence of different types of financial resources on non-profit sport organisations’ strategy by reviewing a range of studies on the strategic process and funding of non-profit organizations that are applicable in sports. The article summarizes different findings and issues that have been de-scribed and published in the pre-reviewed academic journals with no restriction on the date of the issue.

Klíčová slova

non-profit sport organisations; strategic management; funding


Berrett, T., & Slack, T. (2001). A Framework for the Analysis of Strategic Approaches Employed by Non-profit Sport Organisations in Seeking Corporate Sponsorship. Sport Management Review, 4(1), 21‒45.

Coates, D., Wicker, P., Feiler, S., & Breuer, C. (2014). A bivariate probit examination of financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs. International journal of sport finance, 9(3), 230.

Crittenden, W. F., Crittenden, V. L., & Hunt, T. G. (1988). Planning and stakeholder satisfaction in religious organizations. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 17(2), 60‒73.

Gronbjerg, K. A. (1991). How nonprofit human service organizations manage their funding sources: Key findings and policy implications. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 2(2), 159–175.

Håkonsson, D. D., Burton, R. M., Obel, B., & Lauridsen, J. T. (2012). Strategy Implementation Requires the Right Executive Style: Evidence from Danish SMEs. Long Range Planning, 45(2-3), 182–208.

Horch, H. D. (1994). On the socio-economics of voluntary organisations. Voluntas: international journal of voluntary and nonprofit organizations, 5(2), 219‒230.

Hwang, H., & Bromley, P. (2015). Internal and External Determinants of Formal Plans in the Nonprofit Sector. International Public Management Journal, 18(4), 568–588.

Ivašković, I., & Čater, T. (2018). The influence of public funding on the strategies and performance of non-profit basketball clubs from South-Eastern Europe. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja,31(1), 796-810.

Maier, F., Meyer, M., & Steinbereithner, M. (2016). Nonprofit Organizations Becoming Business-Like. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(1), 64–86.

Shortell, S. M., Morrison, E. M., & Robbins, S. (1985). Strategy Making in Health Care Organizations: A Framework and Agenda for Research. Medical Care Review, 42(2), 219–266.

Slack, T., & Hinings, B. (1994). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Sport Organizations: Empirical Verification of a Framework. Journal of Sport Management,8(3), 218‒233.

Stone, M. M. (1989). Planning as strategy in nonprofit organizations: An exploratory study. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 18(4), 297‒315.

Stone, M. M., Bigelow, B., & Crittenden, W. (1999). Research on Strategic Management in Nonprofit Organizations. Administration & Society, 31(3), 378–423.

Thibault, L., Slack, T., & Hinings, B. (1993). A Framework for the Analysis of Strategy in Nonprofit Sport Organizations. Journal of Sport Management,7(1), 25‒43.

Vos, S., Breesch, D., Késenne, S., Hoecke, J. V., Vanreusel, B., & Scheerder, J. (2011). Governmental subsidies and coercive pressures. Evidence from sport clubs and their resource dependencies. European Journal for Sport and Society,8(4), 257‒280.

Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2011). Scarcity of resources in German non-profit sport clubs. Sport management review, 14(2), 188‒201.

Wicker, P., Longley, N., & Breuer, C. (2013). Revenue Volatility in German Nonprofit Sports Clubs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly,44(1), 5‒24.