Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Kinanthropology. Sport and Quality of Life. 7. – 9. 11. 2019



Equilibrium represents the motor capability responsible for the performance of virtually all functional movements. Thus, the importance of early diagnosis of equilibrium levels in boys and girls was recognized as the key factor for the prevention of motor deficits and muscles misbalances later in life. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to show the difference between boys and girls aged 7‒10 years in the level of unilateral static balance of the take-off leg. Methods: Research was conducted at the Kvarner Athletics Club Rijeka, and it involved 80 children aged 7‒10 years (38 boys and 42 girls). Measurement of static unilateral equilibrium was obtained using Gyko Inertial System (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy). Three attempts were made in 20 seconds and two motor variables were observed: medio-lateral and antero-posterior trajectories of the body. For both variables, the arithmetic mean, the minimum and maximum score and standard deviation were calculated. Moreover, a non-parametric method of the Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine statistical significance between boys and girls. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Statistically, girls have significantly better results compared to boys, both in the medio-lateral trajectory variable (M_Sumg = 335.1, M_Sumb = 479.34) and the antero-posterior trajectory variable (M_Sumg = 291.14, M_Sumb = 411.71). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that girls aged 7‒10 years achieved significantly better results compared to boys in observed motor variables (medio-lateral and antero-posterior trajectory of the body), when performing a static unilateral take-off leg balance test. These results are consistent with previous research. Indications for such results stem from different perspectives, among which the most common one refers to the earlier maturation of the systems responsible for postural control in female bodies. Recommendation for further research is to conduct examination on a larger sample of subjects, in younger children (pre-school age) and with both legs.

Klíčová slova

static unilateral balance; early school-age children; take-off leg


Alves Faco, R., Garcia Rossi, A., Pranke, G.I., Cuozzo Lemos, L.F. (2013). Influence of gender in postural balance of school age children. Revista CEFAC. On-line version ISSN 1982-0216.

Cratty, B.J. (1970). Perceptual and motor development in infants and children. New York: The Macmillian Company.

Dorneles, P.P., Pranke, G.I., Mota, C.B. (2013). Comparison of postural balance between female and male adolescents. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, 20(3), 210‒214.

Eguchi, R., Takada, S. (2014). Usefulness of the tri-axial accelerometer for assessing balance function in children. Pediatrics Internatinal, 56(5),753–758.

Horak, F.B. (2006). Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls? Age and Ageing, 35(2), ii7–ii11.

Johnston, R.B., Howard, M.E., Cawley, P.W., Losse, G.M. (1998). Effect of lower extremity muscular fatigue on motor control performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(12). 1703‒1707.

Kim, S.M., Hyun, G.J., Jung, T.W., Son, Y.D., Cho, I.H., Kee, B.S, Han, D.H. (2017). Balance deficit and brain connectivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.Psychiatry Investigation, 14, 452–457.

Lee AJY, Lin W-H. (2007). The influence of gender and somatotype on single-leg upright standing postural stability in children. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23(3), 173–179.

Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., (2002). Atividade fisica do atleta jovem: do crescimento à maturação. São Paulo: Roca.

Mickle, K.J., Munro, B.J., Steele, J.R. (2011). Gender and age affect balance performance in primary school-aged children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14 (3), 243‒248.

Milanović, D. (2013). Teorija treninga, Kineziološki fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Nougier V., Bard C., Fleury M., Teasdale N. (1998). Contribution of central and peripheral-vision to the regulation of stance-development aspects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 68(3), 202‒215.

Riach, C.L., Hayes, K.C. (1987). Maturation of postural sway in young children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 29(5), 650‒658.

Rivas, R.C., Andries Junior, O. (2007). O dimorfismo sexual e suas implicações no rendimento e planejamento do esporte feminino. Mov Percep, 7(10),126‒148.

Roguljić, V. (2015). Mogućnost poboljšanja ravnoteže kod mladih nogometaša. Diplomski rad, Kineziološki fakultet, Sveučilište u Zagrebu.

Roncesvalles, N., Schmitz C., Zedka M., Assaiante C., Woollacott M. (2005). From egocentric to exocentric spatial orientation: development of posture control in bimanual and trunk inclination tasks. Journal of Motor Behaviour, 37, 404‒416.

Sá, C.D.S.C., Boffino, C.C., Ramos, R.T., Tanaka, C. (2018). Development of postural control and maturation of sensory systems in children of different ages a cross-sectional study. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 22(1), 70‒76.

Shimpi, A., A Kharkar, S., A Talreja, A., Rairikar, S. (2014). Effect of Induced Muscular Fatigue on Balance and Core Strength in Normal Individuals. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy, 8(3), 187‒192.

Smith, A.W., Ulmer, F.F, Wong, del P. (2012). Gender differences in postural stability among children. Journal of Human Kinetics, 33, 25–32.

Steindl, R., Kunz, K., Schrott-Fischer, A., Scholtz, A.W. (2006). Effect of age and sex on maturation of sensory systems and balance control. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 48(6), 477–82.

Trošt Bobić, T. (2012). Ipsilateralni i kontralateralni učinci treninga jakosti i ravnoteže na živčanomišićnu funkciju i motoričku kontrolu tjelesno aktivnih osoba. Doktorski rad. Kineziološki fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.

Wan, J., Qin, Z.,Wang, P., Sun, Y., Liu, X. (2017). Muscle fatigue: general understanding and treatment. Experimental and Moleculat Medicine, 49(10), e384.